Good Morning Readers,
I hope you had a lovely weekend. I wanted to tell you about an interesting realization that my Brother brought to my attention about the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine (NE), which deals many biological functions, including cognition. The reason my Brother pointed out this information is regarding sugar or more specifically glucose, an energy source for our bodies, especially when it comes to fasting, and his own food cravings–usually sweets due to not eating as often as he should.
A study has shown that fasting leads to increased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in the blood for up to 4 days of fasting.
Glucose intake was found to significantly increase plasma NE levels. In contrast, protein and fat intake was found to have no effect.
The micronutrient intake sounded very interesting to me so I went and read the source itself, “Thermic Effect of Infused Glucose and Insulin in Man” which is a very small experiment and, as I understand with statistical analysis, might not be relevant to find a correlation.
I thought the above figure would tell the most information, statistically speaking. Group 1 is considered “normal weight volunteers.” Group 2 are “obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance.” Group 3 are “obese subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” Group 3 is a before (Group IIIa) and after a weight loss regimen (Group IIIb). Please note that diabetes mellitus is type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistance.
As you can see from Figure 3, there is an expected amount of glucose found for each group and the actual amount of glucose from each group. Group 3a is the most interesting, pre-weight loss, shows how glucose was found to function in their body. It was not expended (or used) during the thermic effect of food (“is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. Simply, it’s the energy used in digestion, absorption and distribution of nutrients.”). These people with either an “abnormal glucose tolerance” (which would have been tested prior to the experiment) or diabetes mellitus (type 2 , diabetes) did not use the energy from the infused (intravenous or IV) glucose/insulin. It appears in the “Discussion” section of the paper, the Group 3 used the natural processes of the body to maintain their body’s glucose level instead of from the infused (intravenous or I.V.) non-carbohydrate glucose, which more than likely that administered glucose was either converted into glucagon (“The pancreas releases glucagon when the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream falls too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues [in the pancreas]. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level.”) Group 3’s thermic effect “was partially restored” with a weight loss of approximately 23.88 lbs (10.8kg) give or take 0.88 lbs (0.4kg).
I just thought this would be interesting that non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetics who lost the function was able to regain the function once they lost approximately 25 lbs. I know there is more to it than just weight loss and this particular neurotransmitter.
It is only a piece of the puzzle, per se, that I am trying to understand when it comes to my family’s heritage and genetics.
I have a very interesting family heritage and genetics. I admit that I am not entirely certain what it is that we truly got form our father besides certain obvious things: ruddy skin complexion that sunburns easily and hair color, for example. We got many issues from our Mother but they are very manageable and seem to work together to compensate. That is for another post.
I hope you found the information interesting. I apologize if it did not. As always, feel free to post any and all comments on this post or using the Contact Me page. Thank you! Have a great day.